Commercial coal mining by private sector in India likely to cut import bill by Rs 30,000 crore, says CRISIL

India’s recent move to allow the private sector to commercially mine coal will boost both production and mining efficiency, and substitution of imported non-coking coal with domestic production could save roughly Rs 30,000 crore of coal imports, credit rating agency CRISIL said in a report.

The Indian government recently approved the methodology for auction of coal mines/ blocks for sale of coal under which the highest bidder will be given mining rights and there are no restrictions on end-use.

Currently, about 94 per cent of the mining is being done by government-owned entities Coal India Ltd and Singareni Collieries Company Ltd. Despite the recent increase in domestic coal production, India still meets a fifth of its annual requirement through imports, which costs about Rs. 100,000 crore.

Participation of private miners, if allowed, would increase much-needed competition, enhance productivity by facilitating the use of latest equipment, technology and services through higher investments.

Considering that almost half of the domestic coal reserves of 300 billion tonnes, mostly non-coking coal, are yet unallocated, commercial mining can have far-reaching impact.

Power, cement and steel sectors will gain the most being the largest consumers of non-coking coal. In fiscal 2017, India imported 150 million tonnes of coal, costing Rs. 59,000 crore. As much as 90 per cent of this was by imported-coal-based power plants, independent private thermal power plants and captive power plants. For imported-coal-based power plants, coal imports will continue due to their specific requirements.

Imports by independent thermal power plants and captive power plants can be substituted, once commercial mining picks up. These accounted for nearly 50 per cent of the non-coking coal imports which can potentially result in import bill saving by Rs. 30,000 crores.

“Commercial mining can ensure sustained coal stocks for industries, especially power. This can support the credit profiles of thermal power generators, which are currently facing the risk of inadequate fuel,” the agency said.

The benefits from increased private participation in coal mining, though, will depend on faster environmental clearances, availability of adequate evacuation infrastructure. Prudence will also be required from bidders to ensure successful commercialisation of India’s largest natural resource, CRISIL said.

Shekhar Ghosh is consulting editor, He has edited and written for publications like Business India, Business Standard, Business Today, Outlook and many other international publications. He can be reached at

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